Some castles had more than one bailey, and a good example of this is Windsor Castle in England, where several baileys flank the motte. Building Motte and Bailey castles were a great way of securing the towns that had submitted to his power. Their construction was the start of what was to become a massive castle building programme in England and Wales. Castles were built in Exeter, Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntingdon, Cambridge and York. They can be found primarily in Northern France, England, Wales and Scotland – but the influence of these designs spread too to Denmark, Germany, Belgium, and other spots in Northern Europe. Motte and Bailey castles were made out of wood. The bailey was an outer enclosure, which was also defended by a fence and sometimes a ditch, providing a first, outer line of defence for the motte. The bailey was surrounded by a protective ditch and wall of wooden fence (a palisade). Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. If some motte-and-bailey castles could be constructed in less than a month, a medium size stone castle would have taken a minimum of five years to build, while a large size stone castle … This castle was not heavily defended and the Normans soldiers there were beaten and the castle was burnt to the ground. Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe. This model castle provides a unique opportunity to build a […] Motte and bailey castles were made of wood. Each Norman nobleman who received land was expected to build a castle there. When the timber Motte and Bailey Castles were completed many were covered in white plaster - which made them look as if they were made of stone. However, by counting the number of mottes that exist in England, archaeologists believe that the Normans built around 500 – one every two weeks between 1066 and 1086. Do you want to save dozens of hours in time? Slowly motte-and-bailey castles … How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? The smaller mottes could only support a simple tower but the larger ones could support more complex structures that often contain multiple rooms. After he invaded England in 1066, William needed to construct castles in large numbers. The Normans were huge advocates of this type of castle design and this was also a decisive factor in their conquest of the British Isles. How were these castles built? With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building. Those with wooden keeps rotted away, leaving a handful of odd-shaped hills scattered across the landscape – the only indicator that they ever existed. Small and medium mottes could not sustain a large keep, and this meant that living quarters were essentially small and cramped. Often, the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. Wooden castles were quick to build and repair, but they were easy to attack and burn down. The mottes were built layer upon layer. School History is the largest library of history teaching and study resources on the internet. It is possible that local towns people were coerced into working extremely hard to complete the task. As they were largely made of wood, motte and bailey castles were susceptible to fire during an attack, as can be seen in various scenes from the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the 11th-century CE Norman conquest of Britain and events leading up to it. The stone layers were needed to strengthen the motte and to assist drainage. Motte and bailey castles were only temporary features (though many mottes exist to this day) while stone keep castles were built to last. The Bailey was a court-yard at the foot of the mound, surrounded by a bank and ditch. Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historylearningsite_co_uk-leader-1','ezslot_13',115,'0','0'])); No-one is quite sure how many motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. Thanks to the Norman influence in southern Italy and Sicily, a small number of castles were also built there. This meant that a motte and bailey castle could be built quite quickly using just local manpower, earth and timber. The fortification consisted of a wooden keep that was placed on a raised earthwork called a motte, overlooking an enclosed courtyard called the bailey. William started his reign as king of England with uncharacteristic diplomacy. Though these structures had a simplistic and relatively rough design, they were highly effective, having excellent defensive capabilities. Motte and Bailey Castles What Is a Motte and Bailey Castle? However, not all of these structures were abandoned. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. Such defensive structures were They were a true European innovation. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. 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