As a historian of epidemics and infectious disease, I have been asked frequently over the past months: "What are the lessons of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic?" Spain remained neutral, though, and their press reported freely. Overall, the war and the pandemic slashed MLB game attendance by over half from what it was in the previous season. Pasadena outfielder Carl Sawyer’s wife, Nell, died of the virus after giving birth to their daughter in October; the child passed away the next day.5 Pitchers Frank Shellenback and Walt Slagle and outfielder George Cutshaw all reportedly contracted the flu in December and were forced to miss a few games while they recovered at home.6 Two more Pasadena-Standard Oil games had to be postponed that month because of health concerns. In 1919, the influenza pandemic reached Sugar Point and Bear Island. It is estimated that about 500 million people or one-third of the world’s population became infected with this virus. 1 “1918 Pandemic (H1N1 Virus),” Centers for Disease Control and Protection, cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html, accessed May 7, 2020. The MLB delayed its 2020 season due to COVID-19. 13 The ballpark was located near the current site of the Norton Simon Art Museum next to Carmelita Gardens. J. Alex Navarro and Howard Markel, University of Michigan Center for the History of Medicine, https://influenzaarchive.org/cities/city-losangeles.html, accessed May 7, 2020. Even MLB players, umpires and managers wore them during games. Credit: St. Louis Post-Dispatch/Tribune News Service/Getty Images. Here, President Woodrow Wilson (left) waves from a parade car after returning to the United States from France in 1918 at the end of World War I. Each day, women from the Department of War gathered for a 15-minute morning walk, in the hopes that the fresh air would ward off the flu. Hannah and Johnny Rawlings also went deep for Standard, while Irish Meusel “peered over the edge of his mask” to smash four hits for Pasadena.18. He began his professional career just a few months later and would go on to call five World Series and three All-Star Games as a National League umpire for 24 seasons.14, Carl Sawyer provided some comic relief during the game when he came to the plate using his “trick bat … aided and abetted by firecrackers, skyrockets, and sulphur smoke, which was one of the best side shows seen on a local diamond.”15 Truck Hannah, the Standard Oil catcher, “attempted to substitute his catcher’s mask for his ‘flu’ mask, but the health officer spotted him.”16 If anyone else minded wearing a mask, their concerns were quickly dispelled by the excitement of a spirited battle between two strong, competitive teams. In addition to masks, many believed that gargling with warm salt water and mouthwash would stave off infection. Baseball will be attempting to do this through a coronavirus pandemic that has slowed many things and halted sports. After the season, many players traveled west to California to enjoy the balmy climate and continue playing all winter against top major-league, minor-league, and Negro League stars.3. March 6 – Fred Demarais, 52, Canadian pitcher for the 1890 Chicago Colts of the National League. Major League Baseball got lucky. Image: Topical Press Agency/Getty Images . In St. Louis, Missouri, shortly after the first cases of flu were detected, local health officials ordered schools, churches, courtrooms and libraries closed. The ban discouraged Foster and other all-black teams from traveling west during the winter. Overall, the war and the pandemic slashed MLB game attendance by over half from what it was in the previous season. Do they provide insight into how MLB will deal with a year cut short due to COVID-19? (Author’s collection). Gatherings of more than 20 people were banned. MLB announced tentative plans for the inaugural MLB at Field of Dreams presented by GEICO in 2021 after the event’s original debut was pushed back a year by the coronavirus pandemic. If you can help us improve this game story, contact us. By 1919, the war and the pandemic were over, and a tidal wave of baseball fans swelled into stadiums. By the end of the week, the mask order was lifted and life slowly returned to normal. Phoenix, AZ 85004 In nations involved in World War I, government censors prevented local newspapers from reporting on outbreaks. Fans at some sporting events were required to wear flu masks, including at a University of Missouri men’s basketball game and a boxing match in San Francisco.9. ... September 5 – Tom Jordan, Major League Baseball player (died 2019) September 6 Lee Archer, U.S. fighter pilot (died 2010) September 9 – Barbara Fiske Calhoun, American WWII cartoonist and painter; co-founded Quarry Hill Creative Center in Rochester, Vermont, where she taught art and helped establish the ideals of the … Pasadena Merchants 9 11 innings. Still, throughout organized baseball, at least seven players, including Negro League star Ted Kimbro, eventually died from the flu. Overall, the war and the pandemic slashed MLB game attendance by over half from what it was in the previous season. Influenza pandemic of 1918–19, also called Spanish influenza pandemic or Spanish flu, the most severe influenza outbreak of the 20th century and, in terms of total numbers of deaths, among the most devastating pandemics in human history. 1921: The Yankees won the first of an MLB-record 27 World Series titles. Thanks to Tom Shieber at the National Baseball Hall of Fame Library for his help in finding additional photos and confirming the players who were involved in this game. U.S. involvement in World War I -- and on a lesser level the flu pandemic of 1918 -- compromised the 1918 and 1919 MLB seasons, but baseball on Memorial Day persisted. It was caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin. “Now it’s not going to be as severe in 1919 as it was in late 1918, but there’s real caution today that sports organizations, the owners of … Buses were sprayed with anti-flu disinfectants. Dan Halem, MLB's deputy commissioner for baseball administration and the chief legal officer, told ESPN that the league's plan is a "first draft" and that MLB … Chase was eventually reinstated and returned to play for the New York Giants in 1919. Workers at the Navy's hospital at Fort Porter in New York wore masks while working. Meanwhile, 20 miles away at Walter Reed Hospital, influenza patients were put in beds on the porch, separated by hanging sheets. The “Spanish flu,” as it was sometimes called at the time, lasted just 15 months but killed, according to best estimates today, between 50 million and 100 million worldwide. Game attendance more than doubled — from 2,830,613 in 1918 to 6,532,439 in 1919. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak that was officially recognized as a global pandemic last week, the 2020 MLB season has been delayed indefinitely. This telephone operator wears a gauze mask while working. 12 Matt Gallagher, “Baseball Gossip,” Los Angeles Evening Herald, January 20, 1919. These officers were in charge of the War Influenza Camp in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Although there is not universal consensus regarding where the virus originated, it spread worldwide during 1918-1919. Standard-Murphy Oil Co. 10 Published March 12, 2020 Updated March 12, 2020 . In Paris in 1919, two men wore flu masks and advocated for others do the same. By 1919, the war and the pandemic were over, and a tidal wave of baseball fans swelled into stadiums. May 6- A 24 year old outfielder named George Halas makes his MLB debut for the New York Yankees. 27th February 1919. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, though not every outbreak reaches pandemic level as COVID-19 has. Cronkite School at ASU Sullivan came to the plate seeking his third home run of the day and “the crowd called for him to do something,” but he hit a sharp grounder to shortstop Ole Olsen, who handled the play “in a business-like manner” for the final out.20. The 1918, 1919, 1972, 1981, 1985, 1994-95 seasons were shortened. A police officer burned his mask in the middle of the street, causing other citizens to join in and start a small bonfire on Colorado Boulevard.21 The winter-league baseball schedule resumed the following weekend — without masks — until the players had to report for spring training in March. NHL suspends operations due to coronavirus pandemic; MLB delays start of season by at least two weeks . By 1919, the war and the pandemic were over, and a tidal wave of baseball fans swelled into stadiums. Many people (mostly women) volunteered to join nursing groups to help battle the pandemic. 1918. Game attendance more than doubled — from 2,830,613 in 1918 to 6,532,439 in 1919. Baseball in 1918 was affected more by World War I than by the growing influenza pandemic. When Pasadena lifted its mask ordinance for good four days later, the city rejoiced with an impromptu parade of cars tooting their horns along the main thoroughfares. In 1918, an estimated one-third of the world's population contracted the H1N1 "Spanish flu" influenza virus. In 1918, San Francisco's Civic Center complex served as an emergency Navy flu hospital. "That's equivalent to 225 to 450 million people today," said John Barry, a scholar at Tulane University and author of "The Great Influenza." (Author’s collection). 1919 MLB Standings, Team and Player Statistics, Leaderboards, Award Winners, Trades, Minor Leagues, Fielding, Batting, Pitching, New Debuts Red Cross workers inspected equipment at an emergency hospital at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. For the next three decades, until World War II forced the league to shut down in the 1940s, Negro League players such as Satchel Paige, Oscar Charleston, Biz Mackey, and Turkey Stearnes played for all-black teams like the Los Angeles White Sox nearly every winter. In Japan, these school girls wore their protective masks to guard against the influenza outbreak. In 2020, many children are being homeschooled or receiving lessons online. As the Los Angeles Herald reported, “The rooting of the fans and their ‘kill the umpire’ cry was somewhat muffled by the gauze masks, but otherwise they appeared to enjoy the contest.”17, The masks seemed to affect the pitchers more than the batters, as the teams combined for 30 hits and 19 runs. This unusual influenza was deadly to younger people, while elders were left untouched. Pasadena’s roster included Emil “Irish” Meusel of the Philadelphia Phillies, Fred McMullin and Frank Shellenback of the Chicago White Sox, George Cutshaw of the Pittsburgh Pirates, and Pete Schneider and Red Killefer of the Cincinnati Reds. The climate anomaly likely … The influenza pandemic infected an estimated 500 million around the world. 1 of 6. A patient wears a flu nozzle. The World Series between the Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs was played in early September. This nurse is seen sterilizing a hospital room at the War Influenza Camp in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Register now to join us for the SABR Virtual Analytics Conference on March 11-14, 2021. Of course, all plans for the event are contingent upon the status of public health in … Today’s visualization outlines some of history’s most deadly pandemics, from the Antonine Plague to the current COVID-19 event. The year … … Game attendance more than doubled — from 2,830,613 in 1918 to 6,532,439 in 1919. But during the 1918 flu pandemic, baseball players, umpires and fans donned masks and headed to the diamond. Nurses provide treatment to an influenza patient in New Orleans in 1918. But over the following weeks, the infection rate began to subside, and Los Angeles lifted its ban on public gatherings in early December. My 1919 Baseball Magazine featuring Lt. 1949-53: The Yankees won a record five consecutive World Series. In this haunting photo, a man in Australia poses with a painted skull-and-crossbones on his mask. But not every city was as vigilant. In February 1919, a woman wore this flu mask connected to two machines with a long hose. A few weeks later, the photographs taken at the game began circulating, imprinting this unusual confluence of baseball and a pandemic in the nation’s consciousness forever. It infected an estimated 500 million people around the world, about a third of the planet’s total population. In the winter of 1916-17, with World War I still raging in Europe, reports of a new disease — one with a rapid onset and high spreadability — circled through the camp. Doc Crandall, who pitched all 11 innings for Standard, worked around two singles to retire the side in the bottom half. Events from the year 1919 in the United States. Remembering the Pandemic That Nearly Killed Babe Ruth What the sports world can learn from the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic Babe Ruth on the field in his Red Sox uniform in 1919 … By JIMMY GOLEN January 26, 2021 GMT. Other … Huston, part owner of the New York Yankees who is listed as being the first man to enlist who was associated with MLB. influenza pandemic of … The 1918-19 season was rare in that no black players were allowed to participate. It happened only once, during a California Winter League game on January 26, 1919, in Pasadena, where city officials enacted — and enforced — a strict ordinance requiring all citizens to cover their faces while out in public.2. This is what a Red Cross mask-making station looked liked in 1918. As humans have spread across the world, so have infectious diseases. The opening of the California Winter League season on Sunday, October 6, went smoothly, with a powerhouse team sponsored by the Merchants National Bank in Pasadena squaring off against its top rival, a team based at the Standard-Murphy Oil Company plant in La Habra. In October 1918, Boston mayor Andrew Peters invited news crews to come along as he received a flu shot. To the public, it still seemed unimaginable that the next game would be postponed or the series canceled. The Standard Oil lineup had a battery of former New York Giants pitcher Doc Crandall and Yankees catcher Truck Hannah, plus Chick Gandil of the White Sox, Art Griggs of the Detroit Tigers, and Johnny Rawlings of the Boston Braves. TORONTO. Learn about the origins, spread, and impact of the influenza pandemic of 1918–19. Windows were kept open on public transportation lines to curb the spread of the virus. In the United States, it was first identified in military personnel in spring 1918. 1918: The year Major League Baseball — and Babe Ruth — faced a flu pandemic Approximately 675,000 American died from the “Spanish Flu” the U.S. At the influenza camp in Lawrence, Maine, patients were prescribed fresh air as a treatment. U.S. involvement in World War I -- and on a lesser level the flu pandemic of 1918 -- compromised the 1918 and 1919 MLB seasons, but baseball on Memorial Day persisted. Pasadena won 5-4 in the first of nine games they would play each other all winter. The catcher and batter’s identities are unconfirmed, but the best available evidence suggests it might be Truck Hannah behind the plate and Rube Ellis at bat. These men at Camp Dix in New Jersey gargle with saltwater after a day's work at the camp. Thanks also to Eileen King and Christine Rice at the Los Angeles Public Library and Yuriy Shcherbina and Suzanne Noruschat at the University of Southern California for their assistance in tracking down sources. 3 William F. McNeil, The California Winter League: America’s First Integrated Professional Baseball League (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2002), 13-15. By 1919, the war and the pandemic were over, and … Phone: 602.496.1460 Deaths are estimated to have topped 50 million worldwide. MLB; Baseball; Super Bowl; New England Patriots; Boston Bruins; NHL; Boston Red Sox; Coronavirus pandemic; Tampa Bay Buccaneers; New York Yankees; Football; Green Bay Packers; Tom Brady; Football ‘No Hard Feelings’: Patriots fans still rooting for Brady . This exhibit sheds light on the experiences of families like the Romboughs, and considers how this global pandemic played out at home. This outdoor Army hospital was constructed to house sick soldiers. In 1919, these Red Cross nurses in Boston prepared bundles of masks to be distributed to soldiers. Meanwhile, other nurses were tasked with making the masks. 5 Stephen V. Rice, “Carl Sawyer,” SABR BioProject, sabr.org/bioproj/person/bf817fe2, accessed May 10, 2020. The spring of 2020 saw millions of Americans sheltered in place against the coronavirus pandemic. That was 1919, during what would later be coined the "Red Summer," when communities across America were reeling from white mobs inciting brutality against Black people and cities were still wrestling with a third wave of the so-called Spanish flu pandemic that emerged the previous year. Overall, the war and the pandemic slashed MLB game attendance by over half from what it was in the previous season. Flu masks were common in 1918 and 1919 during the influenza pandemic. Overall, the war and the pandemic slashed MLB game attendance by over half from what it was in the previous season. A global pandemic has begun to ease off, leaving many thousands dead and the economy in tatters — and civil unrest with racist underpinnings breaks out across the country. Governors of at least 40 states and many more local governments ordered people to stay at home unless it's absolutely necessary to leave. The 39th Regiment marched through Seattle on its way to a deployment in France during the pandemic. Streetcar conductors and conductorettes (as female drivers were known) all wore masks to prevent infection. MLB announced tentative plans for the inaugural MLB at Field of Dreams presented by GEICO in 2021 after the event’s original debut was pushed back a year by the coronavirus pandemic. On October 11 the City of Los Angeles declared a public-health emergency, taking quick and decisive action to close down schools, theaters, and public gatherings of any kind.4 When the Great War finally ended in November, massive celebrations were held all across the country and the flu reached its peak. In 1919, by the time the Spanish flu had largely run its course in Manitoba, the virus had killed more than 1,200 people in the provincial capital. A little over a century earlier, a different pandemic rattled the world. Disease and illnesses have plagued humanity since the earliest days, … Here, a nurse pumps water at a makeshift influenza hospital. In 1919, these Red Cross nurses in Boston prepared bundles of masks to be distributed to soldiers. A Timeline of Historical Pandemics. 555 N. Central Ave. #416 Military pathologists believe that a British outpost in Étaples, France was the epicenter of the outbreak. Deadly 2nd wave of Spanish flu pandemic … “Standard Takes Series from Pasadena,” Whittier News, January 28, 1919 (reprinted from the Pasadena Star-News). Tragic scenes like this played out in homes around the world, because between 40 and 100 million people were killed by the 1918–1919 flu pandemic, including 4,000 Albertans. The outbreak was caused by influenza type A subtype H1N1 virus. By 1919, the war and the pandemic were over, and a tidal wave of baseball fans swelled into stadiums. 11 “Pasadena Ball Game Postponed One Week,” Los Angeles Evening Express, January 19, 1919. A batter, catcher, and umpire stand at home plate, all wearing cloth masks over their mouth and nose. The photographs are some of the most enduring images of a global influenza pandemic that infected an estimated 500 million people, nearly one-third of the world’s population, and the cause of nearly 50 million deaths over a 24-month span.1 They are a sign of the human desire to carry on in the face of horrific tragedy and of baseball’s place in American culture. The NHL announced on March 12 that it was pausing the 2019-2020 season indefinitely due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. “Masks, Fundraisers and Smallpox-Only Teams: How Baseball Has Dealt With Infectious Diseases Before,” Sports Illustrated, March 9, 2020, si.com/mlb/2020/03/09/coronavirus-baseball-history. The 1919 Major League Baseball season, is best remembered for the Black Sox Scandal, in which the Chicago White Sox threw (purposely lost) the World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, 5–3, in order to illegally gain money from gambling. Women in New York City could be seen bundled in scarves and masks while out shopping. scenario predictions for a current pandemic are based on the global influenza pandemic of 1918, which killed 675,000 people in the United States (nearly 0.8 percent of the 1910 population) and 40 million people worldwide from the early spring of 1918 through the late spring of 1919.4 In all of recorded history, Colonel T.L. In October of 1918, months into the influenza outbreak, this crowd of war munitions workers in Washington D.C. gathered to drink hot chocolate near the Washington Monument. 17 “Pasadena Ball Game Masked,” Los Angeles Evening Herald, January 27, 1919. 14“Beans Reardon,” Retrosheet.org, retrosheet.org/boxesetc/R/Prearb901.htm, accessed May 21, 2020. Here, a crossing guard is seen wearing a mask and gloves. If these images did not survive, it might be hard to believe such an absurd spectacle ever took place: a baseball game played while everyone present was wearing flu masks. The death toll ended up being much higher there than in cities with stricter lockdowns. The U.S. Navy set up this emergency camp outside of Mare Island Naval Hospital in Northern California. Shieber identified the photographer as Frank S. Wilton, a well-known newspaper and film studio cameraman from Huntington Park, California. The war dominated 1918, and attendance per game rose 92% in But many schools remained open during the 1918 pandemic; like their grownup counterparts, children wore masks. The Pasadena Merchants winter league team poses for a photo with umpire John “Beans” Reardon, second from right, during the “flu mask” baseball game on January 26, 1919. In 1920, the popular L.A. White Sox built their own ballpark and the league once again thrived with at least one all-black team every year until 1945. March 13 – Jim Toy, 60, played two seasons, 1887 & 1890, sometimes … Because of World War I, its season had ended a month early, on Sept. 2, before the worst of the outbreak. MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL'S plan to ... of more than 200,000 reliable coronavirus tests and a promise not to interfere with the nationwide fight to contain the pandemic. 19 R.J. Lesch, “Doc Crandall,” SABR BioProject, sabr.org/bioproj/person/93ccb646, accessed May 10, 2020. Game attendance more than doubled — from 2,830,613 in 1918 to 6,532,439 in 1919. Game attendance more than doubled — from 2,830,613 in 1918 to 6,532,439 in 1919. In San Francisco, court was held in a park in an attempt to curb the spread of the deadly flu. These volunteer nurses gather for a photo on the porch of the hospital in Eureka, California. Image: Topical Press Agency/Getty Images. Check out the 1918 MLB Season History, featuring league standings, postseason results, no-hitters, and baseball's leaders in Home Runs, ERA, and more. 21 “Pasadena Repeals Mask Ordinance,” Santa Barbara Daily News, January 31, 1919. 10 “Pasadena ‘Flu’ Mask Law Wide in Scope; Dogs, Cats Don ’Em,” Los Angeles Evening Express, January 20, 1919. The 1918 flu killed 675,000 Americans. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, though not every outbreak reaches pandemic level as COVID-19 has. McNeil, William F. The California Winter League: America’s First Integrated Professional Baseball League (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2002). Football fan Brian Pope browses for Tom … Chick Gandil then “punched out a Texas Leaguer” to score Crandall with the go-ahead run. 17 “Pasadena Ball Game Masked,” Los Angeles Evening Herald, January 27, 1919. The most severe pandemic of the 20th century was the so-called “Spanish flu,” estimated to have caused between 20 and 50 million deaths over 1918 and 1919. “By playing the game with the men wearing masks, the managers of the clubs would have drawn a big crowd,” wrote Matt Gallagher of the Los Angeles Evening Herald.12 No one seemed to ask Dr. Luther Powers, the city’s health commissioner, what he thought of that bright idea. The flu’s effect was still prevalent in 1919, leading to the death of a celebrated hockey player and cancellation of the Stanley Cup finals. The players’ exact order in this photo is unknown. Credit: Keystone-France/Gamma-Rapho/Getty Images. sports-reference.com/cfb/bowls/rose-bowl.html. 7 Bill Francis, “1918 Flu Pandemic Did Not Spare Baseball,” National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, baseballhall.org/discover/1918-flu-pandemic-didnt-spare-baseball, accessed May 10, 2020. By mid-January, public-health officials were calling for another shutdown to help combat the virus. This typist wore a mask while working at her office desk in 1918. Influenza pandemic of 1918–19, the most severe influenza outbreak of the 20th century and among the most devastating pandemics in human history. There's not a mask in sight in this photo of a 1918 Memorial Day parade in Philadelphia. Contact SABR, 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, https://sabr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/1919-baseball-in-flu-masks-clear.png, /wp-content/uploads/2020/02/sabr_logo.png, January 26, 1919: The Flu Mask Baseball Game, si.com/mlb/2020/03/09/coronavirus-baseball-history, cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html, https://influenzaarchive.org/cities/city-losangeles.html, latimes.com/california/story/2020-04-19/coronavirus-lessons-from-great-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic, baseballhall.org/discover/1918-flu-pandemic-didnt-spare-baseball, sports-reference.com/cfb/bowls/rose-bowl.html, newspapers.com/clip/51830833/palladium-item. 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